Cultive cebolla

Por José Herminio Zayas Bermúdez, MBA

jose.zayas5@upr.edu

 

La cebolla se cultiva en Puerto Rico, principalmente en Santa Isabel, Juana Díaz y Guánica.

La cebolla, según se ha estudiado, es oriunda de Asia Central. Luego de ser cosechada se puede almacenar hasta por ocho meses.

Asegúrese que ese empaque diga que es producida en Puerto Rico, porque de lo contrario estará comprando hojas secas en vez de calidad.

No es por menospreciar la cebolla del afuera, pero compare la cebolla del país con la que viene del extranjero.

La semilla de la cebolla son unos pequeños granos color negro que se obtienen de la flor de la planta de cebolla. Puede conseguir semillas en casa agrícolas, supermercados o por internet. Importante: siempre verifique la fecha de expiración en el paquete.

Vamos a comenzar por mencionar cómo preparar la tierra para este cultivo y otras especificaciones.  Estamos a principios de marzo, cuando se cosecha la cebolla que se comenzaron a sembrar en octubre a principios de noviembre.

A este cultivo le agradan las temperaturas frescas. Sin embargo, le gustan los días de mucho sol, por lo que recomendamos seleccione un lugar donde las plantas reciban sol.

Al cultivo de cebollas le gustan los suelos fértiles y drenados. Utilizando el pico rompa el suelo y luego rastrille las veces que sea necesario hasta eliminar toda raíz, piedras o yerbajos. El pH ideal para el cultivo de cebollas fluctúa entre 6.0 y 6.5. Añada al suelo materia orgánica, estiércol o composta, esto activarán la vida biológica del suelo.

Se recomienda germinar primero las semillas en un semillero para luego trasplantar las plántulas al huerto. Puede hacerlo reutilizando cartones de huevo, envases o bandejas preparadas para la germinación.

El trasplante debe realizarse cuando las plantitas tengan una altura de 4 a 5 pulgadas. Para el trasplante, haga un hoyo como de unas 6 pulgadas a la redonda por 4 pulgadas de profundidad y añada abundante composta. Siembre la plántula tomando en consideración que el pilote de tierra adherido a su sistema radicular no cubra el bulbo que ha comenzado a desarrollarse, la que debe quedar al descubierto en todo momento.

Luego del trasplante, riegue la planta con mayor cantidad de agua, pero siempre en la raíz, nunca en las hojas. La cosecha se realiza tomando como indicador el momento en que las hojas comienzan a tornarse amarillentas y la planta dobla la mayoría de sus hojas. El periodo fluctúa entre 130 días, dependiendo de la variedad cultivada y de las condiciones de humedad, temperatura y luz solar.

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