Fertilización o abonamiento en los guineos

La fertilización racional o sustentable es esencial para la producción de plátanos y guineos, debido a la baja fertilidad de la mayoría de los suelos donde se cultivan guineos en la isla.
Antes se sembraba mucho guineo en la altura, ahora se siembra en el llano.

El establecimiento de un programa de fertilización sustentable, basado en la investigación realizada en Puerto Rico, reduce los costos al agricultor y disminuye su efecto negativo hacia el ambiente.

Para establecer un programa de fertilización de manera sustentable es necesario que se realicen análisis completos de suelos y foliares para poder determinar la fertilidad del suelo y cuánta aportación a los requisitos nutricionales de la planta de plátanos existen en el mismo.

En Puerto Rico solo existe un laboratorio (público) con capacidad para hacer análisis parcial tanto de suelos, como foliares, lo que es un factor limitante para el productor de plátanos y guineos.

Varios agricultores, con mayores recursos económicos, utilizan laboratorios privados de los Estados Unidos para estos análisis.Para mayor información llamar al Servicio de Extensión Agrícola.

Los trabajos de investigación realizados con extracción de nutrimentos, demuestran que el guineo es exigente en la utilización de nitrógeno y potasio y en menor cantidad de fósforo y magnesio. En promedio, es parecido al plátano.

El abono debe distribuirse uniformemente alrededor del tronco y si es posible cubrirse con suelo u hojas, para evitar la volatilización del nitrógeno y pérdidas por escorrentía.

También existen en el mercado varias formulaciones de fertilizantes a base de magnesio que pueden ser utilizadas adecuadamente para corregir deficiencias adicionales de este elemento surgidas durante el crecimiento de la planta.

Para dudas o mayor información puede escribir a jose.zayas5@upr.edu

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