Importante el suelo para el cultivo del ají dulce

Por José Herminio Zayas Bermúdez, MBA

 

El ají dulce se debe sembrar en suelos livianos, franco arenoso, aunque suelos pesados o arcillosos fértiles pueden rendir buena producción. Es indispensable tomar muestras de suelo antes de sembrar para determinar el grado de acidez y saturación de bases. Para mantener la fertilidad de estos suelos es importante que se manejen apropiadamente los recursos de agua y suelo.

En áreas semi-llanas es importante el manejo del agua de escorrentía para minimizar el riesgo de erosión del suelo. Mientras, en áreas llanas es importante el manejo apropiado de estos recursos para evitar problemas de mal desagüe y el riesgo de inundación.

El Servicio de Conservación de Recursos Naturales (antes Servicio de Conservación de Suelos) le puede asesorar en el establecimiento de las prácticas adecuadas para su finca.

Limpie el terreno, si está muy enmalezado, antes de arar. Are a una profundidad de 12 a 18 pulgadas.

En suelos sueltos con un solo corte de arado es suficiente. En suelos pesados (arcillosos) se recomiendan de dos a tres cortes de arado. Si el suelo está húmedo se recomienda exponerlo al sol por una o dos semanas, esto ayuda al control de nematodos.

Después del último corte de arado, es recomendable dar dos o tres pases de rastra (de discos).

Antes de surcar se recomienda pasar un triturador (“rotavator o rototiller”) para desmenuzar bien los terrones. Si se ara y rastrilla debidamente se logra un desmenuzado satisfactorio. Si persisten terrones, aplique un riego aéreo ligero y al día siguiente pase otra vez el triturador para romper los terrones que no se rompieron originalmente.

Aunque el declive del suelo sea mínimo, el agua de escorrentía proveniente de áreas adyacentes puede erodar significativamente el terreno, principalmente aquellos que hayan sido desmenuzados o se hayan labrado intensivamente.

El agua de escorrentía se debe dirigir a un desagüe protegido a través de zanjas que protejan el área de la cosecha. Los surcos deben tener el declive suficiente que permita el movimiento de agua, sin causar un problema de erosión o de mal desagüe.

En terrenos con muy poca inclinación y con mal desagüe se recomienda el trazado de líneas guías para establecer la dirección de los bancos, de manera que estos tengan caída suficiente para evitar problemas de mal desagüe en el predio.

La rotación con otro cultivo o el dejar períodos de descanso entre cosechas puede ayudar a mejorar la calidad del suelo si la planta seleccionada en la rotación provee una buena cubierta protectora y aumenta los residuos de cosechas en el suelo. Se recomiendan los siguientes métodos de labranza y prácticas de conservación para el control de la erosión en áreas críticas.

Cero labranza – Se prepara solo el área para siembra abriendo surcos estrechos con la cuchilla del arado, arado de discos o cincel, o se ahoya individualmente y luego se siembra.

Labranza de cobertura – Con esta labranza se deja más de una tercera parte del terreno con vegetación o residuos de plantas luego de arar.

Zanjas de ladera – Se recomiendan zanjas de ladera cada 25 a 35 pies de distancia o según sean diseñadas por el técnico del Servicio de Conservación de Recursos Naturales.

Siembras al contorno – Esta práctica es complemento de la zanja de ladera, de la cero labranza y de la labranza de cobertura. Se recomienda que todas las operaciones de labranza, manejo y prácticas agronómicas y culturales se realicen al contorno.

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