Sin freno el abandono de residencias en el sur

Por Angelique Fragoso Quiñones

angelique.fragoso@esnoticiapr.com

 

La cantidad de casas abandonadas en la zona sur del país ha aumentado considerablemente en los últimos años, fenómeno que expertos atribuyen a la migración masiva a los Estados Unidos, la merma en nacimientos, el aumento en quiebras, los problemas de herencia y el incremento en divorcios.

En el municipio de Ponce -para el 2016- fueron identificados alrededor de 200 casos de viviendas como estorbo público, según estimó María Esther Hernández, empleada de la dependencia municipal encargada de esos casos.

Los resultados de la Encuesta de la Comunidad Puerto Rico revelan que ha habido un aumento de cerca de 20,000 viviendas vacantes entre 2014 y 2015 entre los pueblos de Guánica, Yauco, Guayanilla, Peñuelas, Adjuntas, Ponce, Villalba, Juana Díaz, Santa Isabel, Coamo, Salinas y Guayama.

Mientras, datos de la Oficina del Comisionado de Instituciones Financieras revelan que alrededor de 2,500 de estas propiedades fueron reposeídas. Esto sin contar las que han sido declaradas estorbo público por los ayuntamientos o que están en trámites de ser reposeídas.

 El problema de la emigración

El demógrafo Raúl Figueroa aseguró que el primer factor  que contribuye al abandono de propiedades es la emigración. “Muchas personas han salido del país, muchas de las casas están a la venta, muchas no se han podido vender y están abandonadas y aparte hay proyectos de construcción”, indicó. 

Proyectó que difícilmente este problema tenga solución  porque “no tenemos personas que puedan sustituir a los que se fueron, cada vez hay menos personas; y si a eso le añadimos la merma en nacimientos”.

Figueroa estimó que hay cerca de 300 mil viviendas vacías en Puerto Rico y entiende que el número va a seguir aumentando. El demógrafo prevé que “en los próximos años las personas que están entrando en edad, muchas de ellas van a empezar a fallecer y vamos a ver un aumento en casas que se van a estar deteriorando”.

 El factor de herencia

El corredor de bienes raíces, Abraham García, indicó que otra de las causas del aumento en viviendas abandonadas  es que “el valor de las propiedades ha depreciado y los herederos han determinado que hacer un trámite de herencia, para que le sobre poco o nada, no vale la pena y dejan que se pierda la propiedad”.

Mientras, el tasador Gerardo Aponte añadió que en muchas ocasiones las casas se quedan abandonadas y no se consigue el dueño porque los herederos desaparecen para no pagar las deudas de la misma.

“Otros -indicó- tienen litigios por asuntos de herencia; hay tres o cuatro peleando por la propiedad y esos casos hay que verlos dos y tres veces en la corte porque nunca se ponen de acuerdo y el estado lo que hace es que le pone un letrero de estorbo público”.

Aponte informó que son muchos los casos que se ha topado de personas que se van a la quiebra y que tienen que liquidar sus casas por problemas económicos.

“Hay gente que se va a la quiebra que no pueden mejorar la propiedad, arreglarla y se siguen deteriorando… hay propiedades de gente que ha tenido que liquidarlas y desarrolladores que han tenido que llevarlas a subasta y venderlas para poder recuperar algo de lo que invirtieron”, señaló.

Explicó que trabajando la tasación de propiedades en casos legales se ha encontrado con el factor de divorcios masivos en la región. 

 “El divorcio epidémico, la gente se casa un lunes y el viernes se divorcia, eso sin hablar de los casos de herederos que es el pan nuestro de cada día, la gente se muere un lunes y el martes están los herederos peleando por los cantos de tabla, es una realidad caótica en este país”, expresó Aponte.

La crisis social

El Director del Departamento de Ciencias Sociales de la Pontificia Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recinto de Ponce,  Félix Ramos González, atribuye el aumento de casas abandonadas a la crisis social que enfrenta el país que va acompañada de dos elementos: la emigración y lo económico.

Explicó que “esto no está siendo parte de un sector en particular, no es que sean personas de clase alta, media o baja, son de los tres sistemas de clases sociales y se da de igual manera en el campo que en la ciudad”.

Por otro lado, Ramos González entiende que hay un problema de planificación en Puerto Rico. “Se están otorgando permisos de construcción sin considerar estos factores”, dijo.

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